In addition to the 90-day Schengen visa exemption over a 180-day period, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israeli, Japanese, Malaysian, Mexican, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Singaporeans, South Koreans, United States, Uruguayans and Venezuelans can spend an additional 90 days without a visa in Norway. [52] [53] As the EU-Moldova Action Plan states, „Moldova is called upon to establish enhanced political, security, economic and cultural relations with the EU“ (European Commission, 2005, p. 1). Unlike Brouillette, Hagemann concluded from his analysis of EU-Moldova relations that „governments are always free to choose other options; they don`t have to give in to external pressure“ (2013: 768). He alludes to the argument that, in the absence of a strong incentive for accession, the EU`s leverage in the ENP would be much lower (Langbein-Burzel, 2013). Moreover, Moldovan public opinion is not clear to the EU. Although many citizens want greater freedom of movement, they are quite divided on the issue of loyalty to Russia or the EU (Hagemann, 2013). As I have already said, the Republic of Moldova has achieved its goal of rapprochement with the EU and, more importantly, has been one of the first third countries to impose visa liberalisation on its citizens by cooperative means. In exceptional cases, individual Schengen visas valid for up to 15 days can be issued upon arrival at the border. These visas are reserved for persons who can prove that they have not been able to apply for a visa in advance for „unpredictable“ and „imperative“ reasons, provided they meet the normal criteria for issuing a Schengen visa. [103] However, where the person applying for a Schengen visa at the border is in a category of persons for which one or more of the central authorities of other Schengen states must be consulted, he or she can only obtain a border visa at the border in exceptional circumstances, for humanitarian, national or international reasons (. B, for example, death or serious serious illness of a close relative or other close relative).

[104] In 2017, some 89,000 Schengen visas were issued to travellers upon arrival at the border. [105] People attempting to travel to the Schengen area cannot be transported by the airline because of the airline`s responsibility, which penalises airlines when they carry passengers who do not have the correct documents. Infantino, F. (2016). Outsourcing border controls. Policy and practice of visa policy concluded by the treaty in Morrocco. New York: Springer. In exchange for an agreement on strengthening border controls, developing asylum systems and signing readmission agreements governing deportation procedures, the EU has introduced the prospect of accession and, subsequently, the possibility of travelling to the EU without a visa or, at the very least, facilitated for the eastern and southern peripheries of Europe (Lavenex – Stucky , 2011); Trauner – Kruse, 2008). Some of these cooperations on migration and mobility, such as `mobility partnerships`, have been implemented without difficulty.

However, studies conducted in several partner countries show that these political actors also conduct border and immigration diplomacy by not accepting the partnership, by not complying with EU rules on mobility or even by threatening the EU to allow irregular migrants to pass through (Carrera, Cassarino, El Qadim, Lahlou – den Hertog, 2016); Reslow, 2012; Tsourapas, 2017).